Periodontology & Periodontol Diseases

PERIODONTOLOGY

Periodontology & Periodontol Diseases

Periodontology analyses and treats diseases of the soft tissues that surround and anchor the teeth (periodontal ligament & gums) and the harder bone tissues such. The periodontal ligaments, commonly abbreviated as PDL, are a group of connective tissue fibres that essentially attach the tooth to the alveolar bone. This ligament surrounds and feeds the teeth, covers the jawbone, and securely anchors the teeth in the jaw. Care of the PDL is as important as the care of the teeth.

How to recognize healthy gums

  • The gums are pink and have a firm consistency
  • No gingival bleeding during brushing of the teeth
  • A distance between the tooth and gum is around 1-1.5 mm

What is a periodontal disease?

The Periodontal diseases are inflammatory conditions affecting the tissues that support gums and teeth. Periodontal diseases are responsible for 70% of tooth loss in adults. Such diseases can be successfully and easily treated when diagnosed early.

The maintenance of natural teeth, easier chewing and better digestion are the benefits of prevention and treatment of periodontal diseases.

Gingivitis is the early warning sign of periodontal disease. The gums will bleed, look red, and over time, become inflamed. Although this may not cause discomfort in the early period, if not treated, the disease may progress to periodontitis, and result in irreversible damage to the alveolar bone that supports the teeth and gums.

Periodontitis is a more progressed phase of periodontal disease. The alveolar bone, together with other tissues that support teeth, is damaged. A “periodontal pocket” of localized infection develops between the tooth and gum. The tooth becomes loose as the disease progresses, and may lead to extraction.

Periodontal diseases not treated in a timely manner may lead to loss of teeth and the development of several systemic diseases. Visiting your dentist regularly, and removing bacterial dental plaque with daily oral care routines (brushing teeth and using dental floss) is crucial to maintaining dental health.

What are the symptoms of Periodontal Disease?

  • Bleeding of the gums while brushing teeth
  • Red, swollen and sensitive gums
  • Gums that separate easily from the teeth
  • Inflammation between the teeth and gums
  • Loose teeth, or gaps that develop, or become wider between teeth
  • Change in the position of the upper and lower teeth when biting
  • Change in, or disruption, of consistency of partial denture
  • Persistent bad breath

Causes of Periodontal Diseases

  • Smoking
  • Hormonal changes
  • Malnutrition and irregular eating habits
  • Medication
  • Stress
  • Teeth grinding (bruxism)
  • Diabetes mellitus
  • Other systemic diseases

Treatment of Periodontal Diseases

  • Medication prescribed by the dentist should be used after scaling and curettage.
  • If the disease has severely progressed, periodontal surgical procedures (gingival surgery) should be performed. Surgical procedures may be required to prevent recurrence of, and protect, against the disease in cases of dental recession and bone loss.
  • Surgical and clinical treatments may be performed using conventional methods, or a laser may be used for some treatments if deemed appropriate and recommended by the dentist. Laser therapy has been widely and successfully used for gingival diseases in recent years.
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